A stroke occurs when a blockage or bleed of the blood vessels either interrupts or reduces the supply of blood to the brain. When this happens, the brain does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients, and brain cells start to die.
Stroke is a cerebrovascular disease. This means that it affects the blood vessels that feed the brain oxygen. If the brain does not receive enough oxygen, damage may start to occur. 
There are three main types of stroke:
• Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, making up 87% of all cases. A blood clot prevents blood and oxygen from reaching an area of the brain.
• Hemorrhagic stroke: This occurs when a blood vessel ruptures. These are usually the result of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
• Transient ischemic attack (TIA): This occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is inadequate for a brief period of time. Normal blood flow resumes after a short amount of time, and the symptoms resolve without treatment. Some people call this a ministroke.

Causes and Risk Factors
Each type of stroke has a different set of potential causes. Generally, however, stroke is more likely to affect a person if they:
•    have overweight or obesity
•    are 55 years of age or older
•    have a personal or family history of stroke
•    have high blood pressure
•    have diabetes
•    have high cholesterol
•    have heart disease, carotid artery disease, or another vascular disease
•    are sedentary
•    consume alcohol excessively
•    smoke
•    use illicit drugs

The symptoms of a stroke often appear without warning. Some of the main symptoms include:
•    confusion, including difficulty speaking and understanding speech
•    a headache, possibly with altered consciousness or vomiting
•    numbness or an inability to move parts of the face, arm, or leg, particularly on one side of the body
•    vision problems in one or both eyes
•    difficulty walking, including dizziness and a lack of coordination
Stroke can lead to long-term health problems. Depending on the speed of the diagnosis and treatment, a person can experience temporary or permanent disabilities after a stroke.
Some people may also experience:
•    bladder or bowel control problems
•    depression
•    paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the body
•    difficulty controlling or expressing their emotions

Symptoms vary and may range in severity.
Learning the acronym “FAST” is a good way to remember the symptoms of stroke. This can help a person seek prompt treatment.:
FAST stands for
•    Face drooping: If the person tries to smile, does one side of their face droop?
•    Arm weakness: If the person tries to raise both their arms, does one arm drift downward?
•    Speech difficulty: If the person tries to repeat a simple phrase, is their speech slurred or unusual?

Time to act: If any of these symptoms are occurring, contact the emergency services immediately.
The outcome depends on how quickly someone receives treatment. Prompt care also means that they would be less likely to experience permanent brain damage or death.

Stroke is a potentially life changing event that can have lasting physical and emotional effects.
Successful recovery from a stroke will often involve specific therapies and support systems, including:
•    Speech therapy: This helps with problems producing or understanding speech. Practice, relaxation, and changing communication style can all make communicating easier.
•    Physical therapy: This can help a person relearn movement and coordination. It is important to stay active, even though this may be difficult at first.
•    Occupational therapy: This can help a person improve their ability to carry out daily activities, such as bathing, cooking, dressing, eating, reading, and writing.
•    Support groups: Joining a support group can help a person cope with common mental health issues that can occur after a stroke, such as depression. Many find it useful to share common experiences and exchange information.
•    Support from friends and family: Close friends and relatives should try to offer practical support and comfort after a stroke. Letting friends and family know what they can do to help is very important.

Rehabilitation is an important and ongoing part of stroke treatment. With the right assistance and the support of loved ones, regaining a normal quality of life is usually possible, depending on the severity of the stroke.

The best way to prevent a stroke is to address the underlying causes. People can achieve this by making lifestyle changes such as:
•    eating a healthful diet
•    maintaining a moderate weight
•    exercising regularly
•    not smoking tobacco
•    avoiding alcohol, or only drinking moderately
Eating a nutritious diet means including plenty of:
•    fruits
•    vegetables
•    whole grains
•    nuts
•    seeds
•    legumes

Be sure to limit the amount of red and processed meat in the diet, as well as cholesterol and saturated fats. Also, moderate salt intake to support healthy blood pressure levels.

Other measures a person can take to help reduce the risk of stroke include:
•    controlling their blood pressure levels
•    managing diabetes
•    getting treatment for heart disease
As well as making these lifestyle changes, taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications can also reduce the risk of experiencing another stroke.
Undergoing cardiac artery, carotid artery, or brain aneurysm surgery can also lower the risk of additional strokes, as can some other surgical options still under investigation.


When cerebral stroke is concerned there are many effective medicines available in Homoeopathy , but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient , considering mental and physical symptoms.
Aconite is considered in the initial stage, when the hemorrahage has just happened. It may be due to emotional shock or fright. There is great anxiety of mind and body. Face becomes red. Hot heavy and bursting sensation in the head. The pulse is fast,  full, hard, tense and bounding. Palpitation with anxiety. Hot hands and cold feet. Numbness and tingling in hands and feet, especially left arm.
Opium is indicated where the person becomes collapsed , jaws dropped, pupils dilated, hot sweat and one sided paralysis. There is coma with dusky red face and oppressed breathing. Slow and labored pulse.
Laurocerasus is prescribed where the stroke occurring suddenly without warning, with palpitation, cold moist skin and convulsions of the facial muscles. Sudden cough, suffocation and loss of speech.
Crotalis horridus is best for paralysis from stroke , especially right side. Lower limbs go to sleep easily. Hands tremble, swollen. Cannot keep legs still. The patient is loquacious with desire to escape.Muttering , mumbles, jumbles, and stumbles over his words, tremens. They are agitated, irritable and cross.
Causticum is effective for paralysis after stroke. Paralysis of single parts. It is indicated for paralysis of the muscles of speech, paralysis of the bladder, rectum and extremities. Numbness of the hands and feet. Right sided paralysis.
Gelsemium is indicated for stroke symptoms with numbness, weakness  and trembling with   lost the ability to speak. The person experiences dullness, dizziness and drowsiness. There is paralysis of various groups of  muscles of the eye, esophagus, bladder , rectum etc. Deep seated pain in muscles of back, hips and lower extremities. Lack of muscular co ordination. Muscles cannot obey the will.
left side. Paralysis , especially left side. Speech is very slow.  They are talkative, suffer from hot flushes and high blood pressure. They cannot tolerate anything tight anywhere. Sensation of constriction , especially in the throat, abdomen and head.
Allium sativa is an effective cardiac tonic, it makes the blood thin, improve circulation and cardiac disease . Useful for hypertension and high level of fat in blood. It is considered as a preventive for stroke
Ginko biloba is another remedy for the prevention of stroke. This medicine improve the brain blood circulation and corrects memory loss due to poor blood flow. It is considered a good blood thinner.